真丝地毯,编织传奇.

 

 

各国地毯插图

伊斯法罕地毯
伊斯法罕地毯(Isfahan Rug)
娜姻地毯
娜姻地毯(Nain Rug)
塔伯利兹地毯,大不里士地毯
塔伯利兹地毯(Trabriz Rug)
库姆地毯
库姆地毯(Qum Rug)
喀山地毯
喀山地毯(Kashan Rug)
毕扎尔地毯
毕扎尔地毯(Bijar Rug)
土耳其地毯
土耳其地毯(Turkish Rug)
土库曼斯坦地毯
土库曼斯坦地毯(Turkmenistan Rug)
阿富汗地毯
阿富汗地毯(Afghanistan Rug)
印度地毯
印度地毯(Indian Rug)
巴基斯坦地毯
巴基斯坦地毯(Pakistan Rug)
尼泊尔地毯
尼泊尔地毯(Nepal Rug)
克什米尔地毯
克什米尔地毯(Kashmir Rug)

 

 

 

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世界主要手工地毯生产国家产品介绍(我厂在北京设有真丝地毯销售中心,欢迎光临!)

波斯地毯出现在什么时候?虽然有许多种传说和版本但是我们仍然对此一无所知.最早的手工打结地毯出现在公元前4-5世纪,但这并不是波斯地毯的起源时间.也有一种说法是手工打结编织技术是在公元11世纪由塞尔锡克王朝入侵时带来的(土耳其游牧民建立的塞尔锡克王朝).关于波斯手工地毯在史籍中未有记载的局面一直持续到16世纪手工地毯的黄金时期,从少量遗留下的珍品中我们可以推断出,最美丽的波斯地毯是在撒威德王朝时期(1499-1722)生产出来的,这时手工地毯编织工艺经过充分发展而日臻完美.在撒威德王朝时期涌现出许许多多手工编织中心,如伊斯法汗、塔伯利兹、科尔曼和卡桑等地.
在17世纪末期,特别是18世纪中叶的时候,由于阿富汗的入侵(1721-1722),撒威德王朝渐渐的衰落.这深深的影响到了整个波斯文化和地毯的编织艺术.这也是手工编织艺术衰落的原因.18世纪的工艺品缺少风格反映出这一时期的连年战争.19世纪由于西洋诸国需求的增加,尤其是塔伯利兹的Basars地毯经销商不断的向欧洲出口地毯,从而大大的推进了波斯地毯业的发展.在英国,德国和美国企业操作下建立了很多的地毯商店,尤其是“Ziegler”地毯公司得到了难以置信的发展,伊朗王国的地毯再一次誉满全球.
伊朗地毯的生产除了里海南岸,波斯湾和阿曼沿岸以外,几乎遍及全国各地.伊朗国产羊毛很适合织毯,由于生产的发展,也进口少量优质羊毛.伊朗地毯在染色上大部分仍使用植物颜料,如石榴皮核桃壳、茜草、木樨草、靛青、钾矾等.制造这种颜料虽然复杂,但工艺品美观,不易褪色.伊朗地毯图案是出名,不同地区都有自己的风格和特色,具有丰富的寓意和传说故事.伊朗地毯做工精细,有不少高档品种,主要产地有:
伊斯法罕 :古老的波斯谚语说:伊斯法罕是半个世界.数世纪以前,伊斯法罕地毯在东西方就倍受尊崇,那个时期世界上最好的地毯均出自伊斯法罕,被使用在波斯王宫,欧洲皇室,教廷和贵族阶层,波斯地毯今天的盛名很大程度上归功于伊斯法汗. 典型的伊斯法汗地毯是由花草,中心葵,阿哈巴斯棕榈叶,卷曲的树叶和缠绕的藤蔓构成主要图案,采用世界上最好的科尔克羊毛编织在真丝的经纬线上,伊斯法汗地毯现在仍被认为是世界上最好的波斯地毯.
娜因 :娜因城位于伊斯法汗以东85公里,虽然它并不是最古老的地毯编织城市,却同样是高品质的地毯产地之一,因为它吸收了邻居古城伊斯法罕大多数的地毯编织技巧,同时还融入了自身的编织特点.娜因通常是羊毛与真丝合织,丝毛的比例非常协调.
塔伯利兹(大不里士):塔伯利兹是伊朗的第二大城市,位于伊朗的西北部被誉为“波斯地毯之乡”.之所以得此美名,首先因为它是波斯最早,最古老的地毯出产地;其次是它的产量占整个波斯地毯产量的最大比例,并且囊括了几乎所有波斯地毯的图案和质地.多数情况下塔伯利兹采用花草元素,大尺寸的棕榈叶,花瓶,树叶,小花朵及花园元素等图案同时也有很多自己独特的设计,比如塔伯利兹的 Mahi 鱼形图案,被很多鉴赏家认为是波斯地毯中最优美的设计.
库姆 :波斯地毯一直以纯羊毛编织而闻名于世,同时,波斯也出产极少量的真丝地毯.库姆,正是波斯真丝地毯最著名的产地,被誉为波斯真丝地毯之乡,我们所看到的中国丝毯上的精美图案,多源自于库姆和卡山.除了真丝地毯之外,库姆的羊毛地毯也是世界上最好的手织地毯之一,与伊斯法罕,娜因和塔伯利兹共享胜誉.
卡桑(喀山):产于伊朗中部,以丝毯著称.卡桑地毯构图独特,图案松散不对称,富于旋律感,是高档地毯的主要品种之一.
毕扎尔:毕扎尔地毯也被称为波斯铁毯,是最为结实耐用的地毯,而不只是外观漂亮.这些毯子是西北部的库尔德人所编织.毕扎尔地毯毛厚,结构有力,厚重.毕扎尔地毯在别外可模仿,但不可复制.因为它采用了一种特殊的湿织机技术,这种技术使得经线,纬线,绒毛处于潮湿状态.历经缩水,经纬线和绒毛紧密地结合一起.这种毯子极为坚固耐用,常常铺在交通量大的地方,如门厅、餐厅或客厅.
土耳其手工地毯:或许是赛尔兹克王朝把手工地毯的制作工艺带到了小亚细亚半岛.1283年,当威尼斯的商人马可波罗来到赛尔兹克王朝首都科尼亚市的时候,他在<<马可波罗游记>>中写到,他看到了世界的最美丽最精致的地毯.
土耳其中世纪,奥斯曼帝国的君主苏丹非常喜欢地毯这种艺术,由于他的青睐,土耳其的地毯业也开始逐渐繁荣.在14-17世纪期间生产了大量名贵的皇宫地毯.直到今天,有许多当时的经典图案和编织工艺仍作为范本在使用,同样一种花纹图案重复出现叫Holbein的地毯就是这个时期产生的.最好的典藏珍品出现在16-18世纪时,产自于安纳托利亚西部的乌沙克地毯.在大红衬底上用金黄和深蓝两种颜色织成中央奎星图案,以及以植物类题材构成鸟形图案的“鸟毯”; 随后的数世纪里,手工地毯成为土耳其享誉世界的传统出口工艺品.士麦那城严然成为东方地毯的一个缩影.和其它地毯的起源地一样,在土耳其从游牧民族编织的地毯到安那托利亚农村农民的工艺品,及以工厂和车间形式制造的顶级真丝地毯都应有尽有.
土耳其丝毯和祈祷毯以品质优异而著称,织毯的原料羊毛,丝,天然染料均来自国内,而且供应充足,但价格昂贵.位于东海岸的小城市赫里克(Hereke)是土尔其地毯的生产中心. 产自班德尔马(Panderma)伊斯坦堡(Istanbul),开赛利(Kayseri)和锡瓦斯(Sivas)的地毯也都是闻名遐尔的传统工艺品.在乌沙克(Ushak),库拉(Kula),士麦那(Smyrna),巴盖摩(Bergamo),米拉斯(Milas)高德其(Ghiordes),科尼亚(Konya)和 拉迪克(Ladik)等地的编织艺人,可以不用图纸,凭艺人的构思直接编织旧式地毯, 这和许多世纪以前,安那托利亚的游牧民族编织的色彩丰的Yürük地毯.Yürük意思是“徘徊的牧羊者”都是这类地毯的总称.土耳其地毯的主要品种如下:
安那托利亚库尔德地毯:是由游牧民族生产的.用色方面他们更喜欢深色和素色,典型的长绒头.这里地毯主要用来抵御严寒.
库拉地毯:库拉祈祷毯拱门一般不高,两边呈直线,神龛柱子两侧呈下垂的宽丝带形状,中间的花饰极为精细,有些是一排排的树和房子.
拉迪克地毯:以高档地毯而著称,图案特点是在毯面下有3个尖塔,每个塔尖上栽有一枝郁金香,大边的纹样也有郁金香和大朵鲜花.
米拉斯地毯:产于西南部,大边很大,大地较小,毯中有指明通往圣地麦加道路的拱门,有两条直边,边下各有一个锯齿形三角. 高加索手工地毯:从8到13世纪,阿拉伯的历史学家和探险家留下了许多关于高加索地毯的历史记录,这也印证了这种编织艺术在地势崎岖的高加索地区源远流长.这里有大约350个民族和150种方言,多种文化,多种民族相互交融,但他们的地毯工艺品却能保持着非常一致的风格,这是一个非常有趣的现象. 据说是土耳其人或亚美尼亚人把手工打结地毯的编织工艺带到了高加索地区,由于那里气候高寒,羊的身体强壮,因此其毛质十分温暖柔软富有弹性,羊绒含量很高,另外高加索地区的交通非常不便,人们几乎过着是与世隔绝生活,所以传统的编织工艺和图案在这里得到了很好的保留.现今非常流行的一些图案,如 Karabagh和seichur式样的玫瑰,花草图案却是个例外,这主要是俄罗斯的政要们的崇法情结造成的.
高加索地毯多以土耳其结法编织,主要由几何图案组成,色彩对比强烈,大地有一系列传统的莲花在两边锯齿形叶子中间有小酒杯形的纹样.高加索地毯主要原料产自当地的优质羊毛,光泽而富有弹性,用手触摸这些地毯手感很好.
高加索山区的手工打结地毯又密又厚实,哈萨克Kazakh和Karabagh地区的地毯便是这样,最浓密,短绒,非常结实的打结地毯,大部分产自Dagestan的Leshgiars地区.在濒临里海附近广袤的西伯利亚一带的大草原上,由于气候是比较温暧,阳光明媚,因此这一地区的地毯绒毛短式样多且简洁明快,是非常好的品种.
土库曼斯坦手工地毯:在土库曼地毯是从什么时候开始生产,1800 年之前一直没有文献记载.土库曼民族,畜牧为事,随逐水草, 居无定所.关于地毯的起源又没有史料记载,因此追溯其地毯历史显得非常困难.大约在6世纪的时候,来自新疆阿尔泰山一带的土库曼人不断的大规模迁移到中亚南部地区,10世纪时,到达了里海海岸,在15世纪末期基本形成了土库曼民族.土库曼是突厥人的一个分支,土库曼斯坦意即突厥人的国家.土库曼是一个多民族的国家,从里海的东海岸一直到中国新疆,蒙古居住了40多个民族,土库曼民族之间经过数千年的争持,冲突,交流,融洽.因此他们的文化,技术工艺非常一致,尤其是地毯的编织艺术.土库曼地毯蕴含着土库曼民族的审美情趣.土库曼民族的各个支系都有自己独特的地毯纹饰.现今的土国旗和国徽上都绘有地毯纹饰.但是所有的土库曼人都偏爱红色,基本的图案总是由叫Güls(玫瑰)的花纹组成.以前土库曼地毯的编织是在水平的机梁上织成的,这非常独特.现在也使用垂直机梁,水平机梁现在主要用于家庭.地毯在土库曼斯坦有着广泛而重要的用途.在帐篷的地板上或者墙壁上总是装饰着巨大的地毯.沿着帐篷墙壁上有大大小小的袋子来替代家具用来存放衣物和日用品.也有做成如垫子,被盖,牲畜背上的垫盖,旅行用的褡裢等用具.礼拜毯(穆斯林作礼拜用的小毯)更是土库曼穆斯林所必备之物.和其它地毯不同,刚好供一人使用.礼拜毯中间通常饰以象征清真寺的门形浅洞,尖顶,壁,拱廊或<<古兰经>>经文等图案.
阿富汗手工地毯:地理意义上的阿富汗和阿富汗编织地毯的区域是不同的,大多数阿富汗地毯是由土库曼(Turkoman),尔萨日(Ersari), Saryk,沙罗(Salor),泰科(Tekke),以及他们的分支部落编织的.他们大部分居住在土库曼和乌兹别克斯坦(Uzbekistan), 也有部分游牧部族居住在阿富汗的北方和西北部地区,有些甚至毗邻伊朗的东北部,但他们都编织同样类型的阿富汗地毯.在阿富汗以外的其它区域也同样生产阿富汗类型的地毯,例如贾拉拉巴德(Daulatabad),Karkinin等.阿富汗地毯的命名有用地毯的起源地来命名的,有用所表现的主题来命名的,有用特定的品质来命名的.阿富汗地毯的风格和高加索地毯相似,多采用几何图形,质地优良,羊毛柔软,色彩对比鲜明.大多数以黑色和深红色调为主,中心图案多采用八角形,它的直径有时甚至达到30公分大,这种图案被称为玫瑰图案,有时以黑白勾边填色,采用黑白相同的鸳鸯配法.大多数地毯使用土耳其结法,在阿富汗只有少数象贾拉拉巴德(Daulatabad),马扎里沙里夫(Mazari-i-Sharif)的大型工厂才使用波斯结法.在阿富汗经常使用水平的机架.
印度手工地毯:印度在梵文的意思是月亮,属热带季风气候,由于气候潮湿,地毯在最初的岁月里并没有得到很好的发展,手织地毯的编织在印度始16世纪.在16-17世纪莫卧儿王朝统治时期,阿克巴国王非常喜欢这种波斯艺术从波斯的伊斯法汗,卡山,和科尔曼请来大量的编织工匠为王宫贵族生产华丽高档的地毯,后来渐渐的形成了有着独特风格的印度地毯.1600年,英国商人在当时仍属印度的拉合尔建立了第一家地毯公司,史称东印度公司,稍后印度便逐步的沦为英国的殖民地.19世纪时英国政府直接统治印度.印度是四大文明古国之一,灿烂的印度文明孕育了三大宗教:印度教、佛教和锡克教.
印度地毯大小,是用英尺来度量的,以每英寸有多少个结来表示地毯的密度.印度地毯是美国对伊朗实行制裁的最大受益者,印度地毯以仿制波斯图案而著称,完美的做工,诱人的价格使其在世界地毯市场上极具竞争力.印度是第一个对地毯实行"统一物品”认证体系的国家.式样大小和质量都实行统一的标准且编入目录.基于这样的原因,新的营销模式才可以实行,渐渐地为传统的地毯经销商所接受.他们是一些专家,把地毯看作是珍贵的艺术品,他们的工作就是销售地毯,而且百货公司和家具商店都可以出售地毯.从而大大的提高了手工地毯的成交量.
印度是世界手工地毯最大的生产国.各类波斯,土耳其高加索,土库曼,法国奥泊桑及中国图案设计,均被印度地毯采用,这是印度地毯的最大特点.客户可以指定图案,色彩,尺寸和规格,这些特色使得它在世界地毯市场中极具竞争力.印度手工地毯生产中心是喀什米尔,斋浦尔,亚格拉和贝拿勒斯.
喀什米尔地区:有着悠久的地毯编织传统,至到今天仍然是最好的波斯风格地毯的出产地之一,克什米尔地毯因质地细密,图案复杂而享有盛誉, 主要原料是羊毛,也有用人造纤维或真丝来编织地毯.
斋浦尔又名"玫瑰之城”是拉贾斯坦邦的首府,以秀丽的风光和宏伟的建筑而引人瞩目,也是传统的手工地毯生产基地,特别以生产雅致细腻的羊毛地毯而著称,斋浦尔又盛产优质羊毛,因此有一个响亮的名字-斋浦尔.
亚格拉:这里有许多世界上最美丽的建筑,被誉为世界7大奇观之一的泰姬陵坐落于亚格拉河畔,同时这里也是 一个现代手工地毯的制造中心.
贝拿勒斯:又名瓦拉纳西位于恒河流域,是印度最负盛名的印度教圣城之一有印度“圣城中的圣城”之称.也是印度手工打结地毯的最大出产地.向世界各地输出高品质的地毯.
巴基斯坦手工地毯:在16-17世纪莫卧儿王朝统治时期,阿克巴国王从波斯请来编织工匠.这些主要来自临国阿富汗,伊朗或喀什米尔的回教徒带来了设计图纸.创立了巴基斯坦地毯工业,当时拉合尔已经成为著名的手工地毯的编织中心.巴基斯坦地毯与印度师出同门,共享四百年的历史.历史上巴基斯坦和印度是一个国家,由于宗教的原因,1947年6月根据<<蒙巴顿方案>>实行分治,同年8月巴基斯坦宣布独立,分治后手工打结地毯的编织工艺被很好的传承了下来,但是独立后的巴基斯坦地毯却自成一派,如经常使用的土库曼设计这是印度地毯中很少涉及的.
时至今天地毯制造业在巴基斯坦的经济产业中仍占有重要的位置.它是在棉花,棉织品和大米之后的第三项出口大宗商品.巴基斯坦地毯的编织中心是拉合尔,卡拉奇和白沙瓦,占总产量的75%左右.农民是地毯编织的主力军,他们把从事织毯当作副业收入的来源,以工厂和车间形式组织生产的数量很少.高档的地毯由花草图案组成,大部分是仿制布哈拉波斯和高加索的图案.
尼泊尔手工地毯: 西藏高原是尼泊尔地毯的发祥地,尼泊尔地毯与中国西藏地毯图案纹样相似,颜色以驼色为主,配色柔和协调.在1959年,西藏宣布成为中华人民共和国的自治区时,当时的西藏宗教领袖************和一部分西藏人逃到了西藏的周边地区.在当时国际红十字会和瑞士的政府的帮助下,这一部分西藏人被安置在尼泊尔王国.同时他们也带来了手工打结地毯的编织工艺,从此在尼泊尔王国开创了手工地毯的制造业.为了适应新的原住人的品味和要求,原先的西藏图案和颜色都有了不同的改变,简洁的图案和粉红的色彩非常适合尼泊尔人的品味.从而形成了热烈明快,时尚现代风格的东方地毯.新的花纹式样不断设计出来,客户也可以指定图案和色彩,然后由计算机出图生产.也生产少量真丝编织的高档地毯.并且印刷了很多目录和图片, 这给尼泊尔带来了很好的声誉.
尼泊尔地毯与中国西藏地毯图案纹样非常相似,颜色以驼色为主,配色柔和协调.同时尼泊尔地毯使用西藏盛产的优质羊毛, 弹性强光泽好,且手工纺纱,这都是编织一张上好地毯的基础.

Persian hand-made carpets
Despite many presumptions it remains unknown, when the Persian carpet emerged. The first knotted carpets, discovered in the 4th and 5th B.C., were not of Persian origin. It can be supposed that the technique of knotting was brought to the country with the invasion of the Seljuks in the 11th century. There is also no knowledge about individual development stages until the beginning of the golden period in the 16th century. From miniature painters we know how beautiful the carpets of this period were. It can be supposed that the great creations, generated in the time of the Saffavid Dynasty The Saffavids not only founded a new multinational state, but also began with the founding of famous court manufactories in Isfahan, Tabriz, Kerman, and Kashan. During the end of the 17th century, and even more so in the 18th century, symptoms of decline became evident affecting the entire art and culture of Persia. The political weakening of the country at the end of the Saffavid Dynasty and the Afghan occupation (1721 - 1722) were causal for the symptoms of the decline.
The feeble style of the products of the 18th century mirrors a period of continuous wars. The growing demand in the Occident led to a perceptible boost in the 19th century. Especially the carpet dealers in the Basars of Tabriz carried on a thriving export business with Europe. Numerous carpet shops were established, operated by English firms (Ziegler 1883), German and American enterprises. Especially the “Ziegler carpet” received an unbelievable renaissance at this time. Persian rugs share honors with Chinese porcelain as the two greatest Asian contributions to gracious living in Europe and the America. The major modern-day weaving areas in Persia are Tabriz, Kashan, Mashed, Kerman and Hamadan. High quality rugs are generally produced in Isfahan, Nain, Qum, Bijar and Tabriz.
Isfahan:"Isfahan is half the world" or so the Old Persian saying would have us believe. For centuries Isfahan rugs have been treasured both in the East and in Europe and America. Isfahan experienced its Golden Age in the seventeenth century when Shah Abbas, who was the king of Persia at that time, declared it the nation's capital. The finest carpets in the world were produced here during this period. The ancient Persian kings always had these rugs placed throughout their palaces floors, and sometimes hung on the walls like priceless paintings. Isfahan itself is a very historic city, and it is responsible for a great portion of the reputation that the Persian rug name has today. Modern-day Isfahan rugs are made from kurk wool. They are woven on a silk warp and weft. Isfahan rugs are considered the best Persian rugs in the world. Typical of Isfahan are graceful flowers and jewel-like medallions with Shah Abbas palmettes and curving leaves, all entwined with flowing tendrils and curving arabesques. There exist in the world today, many antique Isfahan rugs that cost several hundreds of thousands of dollars.
Nain: Although Nain is not a very old rug-weaving city, it is well established and among the most valued carpet-producing centers in Iran. It has adapted most of its skills from the very ancient and neighboring city of Isfahan. Among the finest carpets in the world the Nain name alone sells this rug. The city of Nain is located in central Iran about 60 miles east of the enchanted city of Isfahan. These rugs mainly use a perfect ratio of silk and wool.
Qum: Qum is famous for making the best silk Persian rugs. Qum rugs are among the finest handmade carpets in the world. The quality of an authentic Qum rug is extraordinary; therefore, prices tend to be much higher than those made elsewhere (with the exception of Isfahan, Nain, Tabriz and a few other fine rug producing centers in Iran).
Bijar: Bijar rugs are also called "Iron rugs of Persia." Perhaps the toughest and most durable rug on the face of the earth, the Bidjar does more than just look pretty. These hand-woven Persian rugs are made by Kurdish people in Northwestern Iran in the town of Bidjar. Bijar rugs are highly esteemed for their pile thickness, structural strength, and great weight. They are often imitated but never duplicated because no other region uses the wet loom technique that the particular makers of this rug use. The wet loom technique is constantly keeping the wool, warp, and weft wet during the long process of weaving, so the materials temporarily shrink to allow tighter weaving, and then expand when the rug is complete and dry to make the piece very dense and strong. Because of their incredible durability, these rugs are ideal for high traffic areas such as a main foyer or kitchen, but they also look astounding in a living or dining room.
Tabriz: Tabriz rugs are among the most beautiful and legendary Persian carpets ever built. Tabriz is an ancient city in North Western Iran and it is probably responsible for producing the largest percentage of all Persian rugs. There can be many different unique designs but most of the time the pattern in a Tabriz rug is filled with dense floral motifs, with large palmettes, vases, foliage, and small flowers and garden elements scattered with wild profusion. The quality is exceptional in Tabriz made carpets. Many colors can be seen, such as burgundy, red, and ivory and different creams, baby or navy blue, tan, or green. There can be rugs of this type with a medallion, and geometric designs are also seen sometimes. Tabriz has sub-styles as well. The Mahi is probably one of the most elegant rug designs in the world. It consists of very small intricate fish like elements scattered neatly throughout the many borders and medallions of the carpet. The colors are usually dark and silk is often used in conjunction with the wool to accentuate the highlights of the rug. The city of Tabriz is eminent around the world because of its incredibly rich history.
Turkish hand-made carpets
Handmade carpets were possibly brought by the Seljuk people to Asia Minor. When the Venetian merchant, Marco Polo, came to the former capital, the city of Konya, in the year 1283, he wrote, that there he found the most beautiful and exquisite carpets of the world.
With the support of the Ottoman sultans, who at this time already greatly appreciated art, the first court manufactories were founded. From the 14th to the 17th century the most precious court carpets were then made. These are still used as models by many weavers until today. The so-called “Holbein carpets“, repeatedly portrayed in his paintings, are from this period. Great collections of the Ushak carpets and Lotto carpets dated from the 16th and 18th century, as well as the Siebenbürge carpets. In the following century products from Turkey were at the top of world trade, and Smyrna became the epitome for the Oriental carpet. As in other countries of origin, various kinds of carpets are produced in Turkey, from the robust carpet made by the nomads, to the rural products of Anatolian farmers, up to the finest manufactured carpets of sheer silk. Among the finest works in knotting next to the manufacture carpets from Hereke are the carpets from Panderma, Istanbul, Kayseri, and Sivas. They all enjoy traditional fame. No subject book on carpets is without descriptions and pictures of antique carpets from Ushak, Kula, Smyrna, Bergamo, Milas, Ghiordes, Konya, and Ladik. As of today carpets are still made using handed down patterns
Since many generations the nomads of Anatolia make colorful, small Yürük carpets. Yürük means wandering shepherd and is used as generic term for all carpets of this genre. The Anatolien Kurd carpets are also the products of nomads. They are darker and more restrained in their coloring though. The high pile is typical. Here the carpets are mostly used for protection from the cold. The important provinces are arranged by alphabet and can be found on the map.
Caucasus handmade rugs
Arabic historians and travelers from the 8th to the 13th century have left numerous reports about Caucasian carpets, and it seems clear, that the art of weaving must be the most ancient in this rough region. Historically and ethnically the Caucasus with its almost 350 tribes and circa 150 dialects presents a very interesting region. Even though in this melting pot of culture various ethnic groups live together, certain stylistic uniformity in their products remains.
It is assumed, that the Turk people or the Armenians have brought the art of knotting to them. The rough mountain climate, in which healthy and durable mountain sheep deliver outstanding wool, and the isolation of the inaccessible mountain world were the ideal conditions, under which the traditional patterns could be preserved for the unusual Caucasians with their strictly ordered geometrical patterns accommodating the current spirit of the times. Exceptions to this are the now famous roses, and flower patterns of the Karabagh and Seichur, which have originated most likely due to the Francophilic inclinations of Russian officers. Predominantly knotted with the Turkish knot, the Caucasian productions impress mainly by their stark coloring and lustrous wool. Experts can also distinguish these carpets by touch.
Dense, heavy, almost shaggy rugs are knotted by these mountain people. Mainly the Kazakh and the Karabagh are counted among them. Most densely knotted are the Leshgiars from Dagestan, and with a low clip they are firm and sturdy. In the region around the Caspian Sea and in the Mogan steppe, where the climate is milder and the country side is more delightful, finer and short-clipped carpets with bright varied colors and a great pattern variety are found.
Turkmenistan handmade rugs
Without doubt carpets were made in Turkmenistan since unknown times, even so,due to the seclusion of this region, there is no certain knowledge of carpet making before 1800.
With the mobility of the nomadic tribes, their constant migrations and reorganizations it is impossible to attempt to describe their history, especially since there are no written records available. It is known, that in the 6th century the Turcoman people of Turkmenistan came from the Altai Mountains, penetrating continuously in southern direction, until, in the 10th century, they reached the shore of the Caspian Sea. The separation of the Turcoman people into the most important, big tribes took approximately until the year 1600.
The environment of these countless tribes stretched from the Caspian Sea in the East to deep into China (Chinese Turkmenistan) and into Mongolia. The most important tribes are the Jomudes on the river Artek, the nomadic Ersari in the Bokhara region, and in the oasis of Achal and Merv the Tekke are found.The tribes of Saryk live in the country side around Merv, as also the Salors. Almost every tribe has sub-tribes with their own name. With the more then thousands of years strife between the Turcoman people it is all the more surprising, to find that their customs, their culture and their artisan ability has remained uniform, being especially expressed in the art of carpet weaving. All Turkoman tribes love red, the basic motives are always so called Güls (rose), which according to each tribe, has been adapted into various forms. Formerly these expressive carpets were exclusively made on horizontal looms, meanwhile at least the families who have become settled, use vertical looms also.
Woven utensils of all kinds accompany the Turcoman people from the cradle to the grave. The floor of their tents is decorated with the large main carpet. Kibitka braids adorn the walls and as an entry covering the Engsi is found. Pouches of all sizes along the tent walls take the place of furniture. In these Tshowals clothes and supplies are stored and can remain there during their migration. Smaller pouches, so-called Torba‘s complement the assortment. On special occasions horses and camels are decorated with carpets and plaids, saddle bags, called Eyerlik, and these are next to the camel pack bags, the Churdji, or the head dress. Osmolduk is important utensil of the nomad tribes. Special meaning has the Namazlik the prayer rug. Generally the Turkmenistan carpet can be divided into three groups: in the first and finest group are the Tekke, also called Bokhara, the Achal-Tekke and the Pendeh. This group includes approximately 3/4 of all carpets produced in Turkmenistan. As a rule, they are decorated with Bokhara or Salor-Gül.
Afghanistan handmade carpets
The geographical term Afghanistan does not at all concur with the name of the carpet. The majority of the so-called Afghan carpets“are made by the Turkoman tribes, the Ersari, Saryk, Salor, Tekke, and their sub-tribes. Several of these nomad tribes populate the north and northwest of Afghanistan, though the majority lives in Turkmenistan and Usbekistan, and even in the outer northeast corner of Iran. All of them make the same kind of carpet - the Afghan. But in the remaining areas of Afghanistan carpets are also produced, for example in Daulatabad, Karkinin, and other places. In part the different descriptions name the province of origin, but sometimes the name stands for the motif, or for a certain quality.
Afghan carpets are mostly of a dark, heavy red. In the center are big octagons, so called Güls (=rose), which sometimes can have a diameter of up to 30 cm. Mostly they are knotted in a Turkish knot, only a few manufactory products, for example from Daulatabad or Mazari-i-Sharif, show a Persian knot. Overall in this country the horizontal loom is used.
Indian hand-made carpets
In the humid climate of this multinational state, carpets did not play an important role at first. In the 16th century the Mogul rulers, who were very fond of Persian art, brought in famous weaving craftsmen from Persia, to be in charge of their newly founded court manufactories. Magnificent carpets for the imperial palaces were created. Only later a particular Indian style developed.
In1600s an increase in production was caused by the English, who became by and by the rulers in India. By the hostile take-over through the British crown in the 19th century the final unification of the torn country was made possible. The grand Indian Empire, the cradle of the 3 great world religions, the Hinduism, Buddhism,and Sikhism, later broke apart into Pakistan, India Sikhism, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Burma.
In Germany the Indian carpet played only a minor role up until the middle of 1950s. In the surge of the postwar Wirtschaftwunder a reasonably priced fashion article was created with the Indo-Hamadan, which became a convincing success. In the entire country of India new weaving manufactories were established. The scope of products was increased; the Persian carpet was copied and put on the global market in uncounted variations.
Four main centers with very differing products must be mentioned: Kashmir, Djaipur, Agra, and Benares.
Kashmir, most likely the oldest of the weaving areas - today produces finest carpets in the Persian style, made of wool, but often also of artificial or natural silk. The capital Srinagar is the collecting and trading point for the attractive products.
Jaipur, the former residence of powerful maharadjahs, has a long tradition of artisans and make especially delicate wool carpets. The province with the most important production of wool, has so made a name for itself Jaipur
Agra, with the most beautiful building of the world, the Tadj Mahal, is also a capital of modern carpet production. The East India Carpet Company made die Indian Sarough acceptable and founded the newer knotting tradition.
Benares, at the Ganges River, known as holy city to the Hindu pilgrims, is located in the largest knotting area of India. Three cities: Bhadhoi, Khamaria, and Mirzapur have manufactories that produce carpets of exceptional quality for worldwide export.
In Indian productions, the carpets are always dealt in foot measures and the density of knots is determined by inch. Conversion formulae can be found in the chapter “Mark of Quality and Conversion”.
Indian carpets profited enormously by the American embargo against the Iran. Their copies of Persian carpets were attractive in their composition, satisfactory in quality, and acceptable in price. India was first to recognize the great demand for “uniform goods“. Patterns, sizes, and qualities were standardized and catalogued. Due to this, new forms of marketing were made possible. Not only the traditional carpet dealers, who as experts until then sold precious individual pieces as work of art, determined the market, but also increasingly the department stores and furniture shops. Big marketing campaigns of similar carpets made enormous turnovers possible, therefore reaching new target groups.
Pakistan hand-made carpets
In the time of the Mogul rulers, in the 16th/17th century, Lahore was already a centre of the weaving art. Persian master craftsmen helped the manufactories to great fame. Mostly it was Moslem weavers, which came from the bordering countries, Afghanistan, Iran, or from Kashmir, bringing their designs with them.
After the separation of the country, mainly due to religious reasons, the country won its independence from the British Empire in 1947. A renaissance of the knotted carpet is last but not at least due to the Moslem weavers who came into the country after the division. Today Pakistan carpet productions are an important commercial factor. The carpets are made in family workshops as well as in manufactories, and the rural people still play a big role in this industry.
Pakistan and India share 400 year history of carpet-weaving. In 1947 the British granted independence to the Indian subcontinent and Pakistan was created from the northwest areas of India. The major factor in the partitioning was religion, Pakistan being Moslem and India being Hindu. After the partition, many Moslem weavers moved from India to Lahore and other parts of Pakistan. These weavers were the foundation of the rug-weaving industry of the new country of Pakistan. Turcoman designs are frequently used in Pakistan rugs. Modern weaving center are Lahore, Karachi and Peshawar.
Nepal hand-made carpets
The highland of Tibet is the actual home of the so-called Nepal carpets. When Tibet was declared “Autonomic Territory of the Peoples Republic of China“ in 1959, not only their worldly leader, the Dalai Lama, but also many Tibetans fled the country to the neighboring countries. At that time the International Red Cross and the Swiss government started an aid programme, allowing Tibetan refugees to do in their new home. That was the start of the carpet production in the Kingdom of Nepal. At the beginning the designs and coolers of the old originals had to be adapted to contemporary tastes. The sparing design and the coloring in pastel shades met the taste of the customers. Young people were noticeably enthusiastic about this modern style Oriental carpet.
New designs and collections continued to come out. Customer designed patterns were converted with the help of computers and then produced. With the use of silk, new textures were created. Numerous catalogues were published, giving the Nepal an exceptional popularity.

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